Spring MVC源码(二) —– DispatcherServlet 请求处理流程 面试必问 – Python量化投资

Spring MVC源码(二) —– DispatcherServlet 请求处理流程 面试必问

前端控制器

前端控制器,即所谓的Front Controller,体现的是设计模式中的前端控制器模式。前端控制器处理所有从用户过来的请求。所有用户的请求都要通过前端控制器。SpringMVC框架和其他请求驱动的表示层框架一样,也是围绕一个将请求分发到相应控制器的核心Servlet来设计的。DispatcherServlet和其他框架中的Servlet不一样的地方在于,它和Spring容器无缝整合在了一起,因此你可以在SpringMVC中使用Spring容器所有的特性。

DispatcherServlet这个前端控制器,在SpringMVC中的作用,以官方文档中的配图来说明:

整个流程可以被大致描述为:一个http请求到达服务器,被DispatcherServlet接收。DispatcherServlet将请求委派给合适的处理器Controller,此时处理控制权到达Controller对象。Controller内部完成请求的数据模型的创建和业务逻辑的处理,然后再将填充了数据后的模型即model和控制权一并交还给DispatcherServlet,委派DispatcherServlet来渲染响应。DispatcherServlet再将这些数据和适当的数据模版视图结合,向Response输出响应。

DispatcherServlet

SpringMVC完成初始化流程之后,就进入Servlet标准生命周期的第二个阶段,即“service”阶段。在“service”阶段中,每一次Http请求到来,容器都会启动一个请求线程,通过service()方法,委派到doGet()或者doPost()这些方法,完成Http请求的处理。

在初始化流程中,SpringMVC巧妙的运用依赖注入读取参数,并最终建立一个与容器上下文相关联的Spring子上下文。这个子上下文,就像Struts2中xwork容器一样,为接下来的Http处理流程中各种编程元素提供了容身之所。如果说将Spring上下文关联到Servlet容器中,是SpringMVC框架的第一个亮点,那么在请求转发流程中,SpringMVC对各种处理环节编程元素的抽象,就是另外一个独具匠心的亮点。

Struts2采取的是一种完全和Web容器隔离和解耦的事件机制。诸如Action对象、Result对象、Interceptor对象,这些都是完全脱离Servlet容器的编程元素。Struts2将数据流和事件处理完全剥离开来,从Http请求中读取数据后,下面的事件处理流程就只依赖于这些数据,而完全不知道有Web环境的存在。

反观SpringMVC,无论HandlerMapping对象、HandlerAdapter对象还是View对象,这些核心的接口所定义的方法中,HttpServletRequest和HttpServletResponse对象都是直接作为方法的参数出现的。这也就意味着,框架的设计者,直接将SpringMVC框架和容器绑定到了一起。或者说,整个SpringMVC框架,都是依托着Servlet容器元素来设计的。下面就来看一下,源码中是如何体现这一点的。

请求转发的入口

就像任何一个注册在容器中的Servlet一样,DispatcherServlet也是通过自己的service()方法来接收和转发Http请求到具体的doGet()或doPost()这些方法的。以一次典型的GET请求为例,经过HttpServlet基类中service()方法的委派,请求会被转发到doGet()方法或者doPost()方法中。


protected void service(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
    String method = req.getMethod();
    long lastModified;
    if (method.equals("GET")) {
        lastModified = this.getLastModified(req);
        if (lastModified == -1L) {
            this.doGet(req, resp);
        } else {
            long ifModifiedSince = req.getDateHeader("If-Modified-Since");
            if (ifModifiedSince < lastModified) {
                this.maybeSetLastModified(resp, lastModified);
                this.doGet(req, resp);
            } else {
                resp.setStatus(304);
            }
        }
    } else if (method.equals("HEAD")) {
        lastModified = this.getLastModified(req);
        this.maybeSetLastModified(resp, lastModified);
        this.doHead(req, resp);
    } else if (method.equals("POST")) {
        this.doPost(req, resp);
    } else if (method.equals("PUT")) {
        this.doPut(req, resp);
    } else if (method.equals("DELETE")) {
        this.doDelete(req, resp);
    } else if (method.equals("OPTIONS")) {
        this.doOptions(req, resp);
    } else if (method.equals("TRACE")) {
        this.doTrace(req, resp);
    } else {
        String errMsg = lStrings.getString("http.method_not_implemented");
        Object[] errArgs = new Object[]{method};
        errMsg = MessageFormat.format(errMsg, errArgs);
        resp.sendError(501, errMsg);
    }

}


doGet() 和 doPost() 方法,在DispatcherServlet的父类FrameworkServlet类中被覆写。


protected final void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
    this.processRequest(request, response);
}

protected final void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
    this.processRequest(request, response);
}


可以看到,这里只是简单的转发到processRequest()这个方法。


protected final void processRequest(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
        throws ServletException, IOException {

    long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
    Throwable failureCause = null;

    // Expose current LocaleResolver and request as LocaleContext.
    LocaleContext previousLocaleContext = LocaleContextHolder.getLocaleContext();
    LocaleContextHolder.setLocaleContext(buildLocaleContext(request), this.threadContextInheritable);

    // Expose current RequestAttributes to current thread.
    RequestAttributes previousRequestAttributes = RequestContextHolder.getRequestAttributes();
    ServletRequestAttributes requestAttributes = null;
    if (previousRequestAttributes == null || previousRequestAttributes.getClass().equals(ServletRequestAttributes.class)) {
        requestAttributes = new ServletRequestAttributes(request);
        RequestContextHolder.setRequestAttributes(requestAttributes, this.threadContextInheritable);
    }

    if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
        logger.trace("Bound request context to thread: " + request);
    }

    try {
        doService(request, response);
    }
    finally {
        // Clear request attributes and reset thread-bound context.
        LocaleContextHolder.setLocaleContext(previousLocaleContext, this.threadContextInheritable);
        if (requestAttributes != null) {
            RequestContextHolder.setRequestAttributes(previousRequestAttributes, this.threadContextInheritable);
            requestAttributes.requestCompleted();
        }
        if (this.publishEvents) {
            // Whether or not we succeeded, publish an event.
            long processingTime = System.currentTimeMillis() - startTime;
            this.webApplicationContext.publishEvent(
                    new ServletRequestHandledEvent(this,
                            request.getRequestURI(), request.getRemoteAddr(),
                            request.getMethod(), getServletConfig().getServletName(),
                            WebUtils.getSessionId(request), getUsernameForRequest(request),
                            processingTime, failureCause));
        }
    }
}


可以看到,processRequest()方法只是做了一些线程安全的隔离,真正的请求处理,发生在doService()方法中。点开FrameworkServlet类中的doService()方法。


protected abstract void doService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
        throws Exception;


又是一个抽象方法,这也是SpringMVC类设计中的惯用伎俩:父类抽象处理流程,子类给予具体的实现。真正的实现是在DispatcherServlet类中。

让我们接着看DispatcherServlet类中实现的doService()方法。


@Override
protected void doService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
    if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
        String requestUri = urlPathHelper.getRequestUri(request);
        logger.debug("DispatcherServlet with name '" + getServletName() + "' processing " + request.getMethod() +
                " request for [" + requestUri + "]");
    }

    // Keep a snapshot of the request attributes in case of an include,
    // to be able to restore the original attributes after the include.
    Map<String, Object> attributesSnapshot = null;
    if (WebUtils.isIncludeRequest(request)) {
        logger.debug("Taking snapshot of request attributes before include");
        attributesSnapshot = new HashMap<String, Object>();
        Enumeration<?> attrNames = request.getAttributeNames();
        while (attrNames.hasMoreElements()) {
            String attrName = (String) attrNames.nextElement();
            if (this.cleanupAfterInclude || attrName.startsWith("org.springframework.web.servlet")) {
                attributesSnapshot.put(attrName, request.getAttribute(attrName));
            }
        }
    }

    // Make framework objects available to handlers and view objects.
    request.setAttribute(WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE, getWebApplicationContext());
    request.setAttribute(LOCALE_RESOLVER_ATTRIBUTE, this.localeResolver);
    request.setAttribute(THEME_RESOLVER_ATTRIBUTE, this.themeResolver);
    request.setAttribute(THEME_SOURCE_ATTRIBUTE, getThemeSource());

    FlashMap inputFlashMap = this.flashMapManager.retrieveAndUpdate(request, response);
    if (inputFlashMap != null) {
        request.setAttribute(INPUT_FLASH_MAP_ATTRIBUTE, Collections.unmodifiableMap(inputFlashMap));
    }
    request.setAttribute(OUTPUT_FLASH_MAP_ATTRIBUTE, new FlashMap());
    request.setAttribute(FLASH_MAP_MANAGER_ATTRIBUTE, this.flashMapManager);

    try {
        doDispatch(request, response);
    }
    finally {
        // Restore the original attribute snapshot, in case of an include.
        if (attributesSnapshot != null) {
            restoreAttributesAfterInclude(request, attributesSnapshot);
        }
    }
}


几个requet.setAttribute()方法的调用,将前面在初始化流程中实例化的对象设置到http请求的属性中,供下一步处理使用,其中有容器的上下文对象、本地化解析器等SpringMVC特有的编程元素。不同于Struts2中的ValueStack,SpringMVC的数据并没有从HttpServletRequest对象中抽离出来再存进另外一个编程元素,这也跟SpringMVC的设计思想有关。因为从一开始,SpringMVC的设计者就认为,不应该将请求处理过程和Web容器完全隔离

所以,你可以看到,真正发生请求转发的方法doDispatch()中,它的参数是HttpServletRequest和HttpServletResponse对象。这给我们传递的意思也很明确,从request中能获取到一切请求的数据,从response中,我们又可以往服务器端输出任何响应,Http请求的处理,就应该围绕这两个对象来设计。我们不妨可以将SpringMVC这种设计方案,是从Struts2的过度设计中吸取教训,而向Servlet编程的一种回归和简化。

而对请求的处理交给doDispatcher方法


protected void doDispatch(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
    HttpServletRequest processedRequest = request;
    HandlerExecutionChain mappedHandler = null;
    boolean multipartRequestParsed = false;

    WebAsyncManager asyncManager = WebAsyncUtils.getAsyncManager(request);

    try {
        ModelAndView mv = null;
        Exception dispatchException = null;

        try {
            // 处理文件上传
            processedRequest = checkMultipart(request);
            multipartRequestParsed = (processedRequest != request);

            // 决定当前请求的Handler
            mappedHandler = getHandler(processedRequest);
            if (mappedHandler == null || mappedHandler.getHandler() == null) {
                noHandlerFound(processedRequest, response);
                return;
            }

            // 决定当前请求的HandlerAdapter
            HandlerAdapter ha = getHandlerAdapter(mappedHandler.getHandler());

            // 处理last-modified请求头
            String method = request.getMethod();
            boolean isGet = "GET".equals(method);
            if (isGet || "HEAD".equals(method)) {
                long lastModified = ha.getLastModified(request, mappedHandler.getHandler());
                if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                    logger.debug("Last-Modified value for [" + getRequestUri(request) + "] is: " + lastModified);
                }
                if (new ServletWebRequest(request, response).checkNotModified(lastModified) && isGet) {
                    return;
                }
            }

            // 拦截器的前置处理
            if (!mappedHandler.applyPreHandle(processedRequest, response)) {
                return;
            }

            // Handler实际执行请求
            mv = ha.handle(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler.getHandler());

            if (asyncManager.isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
                return;
            }

            // 设置默认视图名
            applyDefaultViewName(processedRequest, mv);
            // 拦截器后置处理
            mappedHandler.applyPostHandle(processedRequest, response, mv);
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            dispatchException = ex;
        }
        catch (Throwable err) {
            // As of 4.3, we're processing Errors thrown from handler methods as well,
            // making them available for @ExceptionHandler methods and other scenarios.
            dispatchException = new NestedServletException("Handler dispatch failed", err);
        }

        // 选择视图并渲染视图
        processDispatchResult(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler, mv, dispatchException);
    }
    catch (Exception ex) {
        triggerAfterCompletion(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler, ex);
    }
    catch (Throwable err) {
        triggerAfterCompletion(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler,
                new NestedServletException("Handler processing failed", err));
    }
    finally {
        if (asyncManager.isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
            // Instead of postHandle and afterCompletion
            if (mappedHandler != null) {
                mappedHandler.applyAfterConcurrentHandlingStarted(processedRequest, response);
            }
        }
        else {
            // Clean up any resources used by a multipart request.
            if (multipartRequestParsed) {
                cleanupMultipart(processedRequest);
            }
        }
    }
}


先看doDispatcher方法执行的主要操作时序图

请求路由

getHandler方法就是从HandlerMapping中查询匹配当前request的Handler。我们看到只要一匹配上 handler 就不再循环,直接返回


protected HandlerExecutionChain getHandler(HttpServletRequest request) throws Exception {
    for (HandlerMapping hm : this.handlerMappings) {
        HandlerExecutionChain handler = hm.getHandler(request);
        if (handler != null) {
            return handler;
        }
    }
    return null;
}


HandlerMapping的getHandler方法在抽象基类AbstractHandlerMapping


public final HandlerExecutionChain getHandler(HttpServletRequest request) throws Exception {
    // 由子类根据request获取Handler
    Object handler = getHandlerInternal(request);
    // 如果没匹配到,则获取默认Handler
    if (handler == null) {
        handler = getDefaultHandler();
    }
    if (handler == null) {
        return null;
    }
    // 如果返回的Handler为String,则使用Spring容器实例化
    if (handler instanceof String) {
        String handlerName = (String) handler;
        handler = getApplicationContext().getBean(handlerName);
    }

    // 查询匹配的拦截器,组装Handler生成HandlerExecutionChain
    HandlerExecutionChain executionChain = getHandlerExecutionChain(handler, request);
    if (CorsUtils.isCorsRequest(request)) {
        CorsConfiguration globalConfig = this.corsConfigSource.getCorsConfiguration(request);
        CorsConfiguration handlerConfig = getCorsConfiguration(handler, request);
        CorsConfiguration config = (globalConfig != null ? globalConfig.combine(handlerConfig) : handlerConfig);
        executionChain = getCorsHandlerExecutionChain(request, executionChain, config);
    }
    return executionChain;
}


最终返回的Handler是由拦截器链和Handler共同组成的,而具体匹配Handler的方法是交给子类来完成的。上一章组件初始化中提到生产环境下使用的是RequestMappingHandlerMapping,getHandlerInternal方法的实现在它的基类AbstractHandlerMethodMapping。


protected HandlerMethod getHandlerInternal(HttpServletRequest request) throws Exception {
    // 从request获取匹配url
    String lookupPath = getUrlPathHelper().getLookupPathForRequest(request);
    if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
        logger.debug("Looking up handler method for path " + lookupPath);
    }
    this.mappingRegistry.acquireReadLock();
    try {
        // 查询匹配的HandlerMethod
        HandlerMethod handlerMethod = lookupHandlerMethod(lookupPath, request);
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            if (handlerMethod != null) {
                logger.debug("Returning handler method [" + handlerMethod + "]");
            }
            else {
                logger.debug("Did not find handler method for [" + lookupPath + "]");
            }
        }
        return (handlerMethod != null ? handlerMethod.createWithResolvedBean() : null);
    }
    finally {
        this.mappingRegistry.releaseReadLock();
    }
}


可以看到返回的Handler的类型为HandlerMethod,它对应于Controller中的方法。上一章也提过,在AbstractHandlerMethodMapping中有一个MappingRegistry,统一管理URL和Controller方法的映射关系,lookupHandlerMethod就是对MappingRegistry的操作。


protected HandlerMethod lookupHandlerMethod(String lookupPath, HttpServletRequest request) throws Exception {
    List<Match> matches = new ArrayList<Match>();
    // 从mappingRegistry获取匹配到的RequestMappingInfo
    List<T> directPathMatches = this.mappingRegistry.getMappingsByUrl(lookupPath);
    if (directPathMatches != null) {
        addMatchingMappings(directPathMatches, matches, request);
    }
    if (matches.isEmpty()) {
        // No choice but to go through all mappings...
        addMatchingMappings(this.mappingRegistry.getMappings().keySet(), matches, request);
    }

    // 对匹配项进行排序
    if (!matches.isEmpty()) {
        Comparator<Match> comparator = new MatchComparator(getMappingComparator(request));
        Collections.sort(matches, comparator);
        if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            logger.trace("Found " + matches.size() + " matching mapping(s) for [" +
                    lookupPath + "] : " + matches);
        }
        Match bestMatch = matches.get(0);
        if (matches.size() > 1) {
            if (CorsUtils.isPreFlightRequest(request)) {
                return PREFLIGHT_AMBIGUOUS_MATCH;
            }
            Match secondBestMatch = matches.get(1);
            if (comparator.compare(bestMatch, secondBestMatch) == 0) {
                Method m1 = bestMatch.handlerMethod.getMethod();
                Method m2 = secondBestMatch.handlerMethod.getMethod();
                throw new IllegalStateException("Ambiguous handler methods mapped for HTTP path '" +
                        request.getRequestURL() + "': {" + m1 + ", " + m2 + "}");
            }
        }
        handleMatch(bestMatch.mapping, lookupPath, request);
        return bestMatch.handlerMethod;
    }
    else {
        // 无匹配项处理
        return handleNoMatch(this.mappingRegistry.getMappings().keySet(), lookupPath, request);
    }
}


通过mappingRegistry匹配返回RequestMappingInfo,对应于每个有@RequestMapping注解解析后的Method。

我们来看看,HandlerExecutionChain类的代码。


package org.springframework.web.servlet;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

import org.springframework.util.CollectionUtils;

public class HandlerExecutionChain {

    private final Object handler;

    private HandlerInterceptor[] interceptors;

    private List<HandlerInterceptor> interceptorList;

    public HandlerExecutionChain(Object handler) {
        this(handler, null);
    }

    public HandlerExecutionChain(Object handler, HandlerInterceptor[] interceptors) {
        if (handler instanceof HandlerExecutionChain) {
            HandlerExecutionChain originalChain = (HandlerExecutionChain) handler;
            this.handler = originalChain.getHandler();
            this.interceptorList = new ArrayList<HandlerInterceptor>();
            CollectionUtils.mergeArrayIntoCollection(originalChain.getInterceptors(), this.interceptorList);
            CollectionUtils.mergeArrayIntoCollection(interceptors, this.interceptorList);
        }
        else {
            this.handler = handler;
            this.interceptors = interceptors;
        }
    }

    public Object getHandler() {
        return this.handler;
    }

    public void addInterceptor(HandlerInterceptor interceptor) {
        initInterceptorList();
        this.interceptorList.add(interceptor);
    }

    public void addInterceptors(HandlerInterceptor[] interceptors) {
        if (interceptors != null) {
            initInterceptorList();
            this.interceptorList.addAll(Arrays.asList(interceptors));
        }
    }

    private void initInterceptorList() {
        if (this.interceptorList == null) {
            this.interceptorList = new ArrayList<HandlerInterceptor>();
        }
        if (this.interceptors != null) {
            this.interceptorList.addAll(Arrays.asList(this.interceptors));
            this.interceptors = null;
        }
    }

    public HandlerInterceptor[] getInterceptors() {
        if (this.interceptors == null && this.interceptorList != null) {
            this.interceptors = this.interceptorList.toArray(new HandlerInterceptor[this.interceptorList.size()]);
        }
        return this.interceptors;
    }

}


一个拦截器列表,一个执行对象,这个类的内容十分的简单,它蕴含的设计思想,却十分的丰富。

1.拦截器组成的列表,在执行对象被调用的前后,会依次执行。这里可以看成是一个的AOP环绕通知,拦截器可以对处理对象随心所欲的进行处理和增强。这里明显是吸收了Struts2中拦截器的设计思想。这种AOP环绕式的扩展点设计,也几乎成为所有框架必备的内容。

2.实际的处理对象,即handler对象,是由Object对象来引用的。


private final Object handler;


当我们拿到HandlerExecutionChain,就完成了request到Controller的路由操作。

适配器匹配

有了Handler后,需要合适的HandlerAdapter对其进行操作,因而就要根据Handler进行匹配。


protected HandlerAdapter getHandlerAdapter(Object handler) throws ServletException {
    for (HandlerAdapter ha : this.handlerAdapters) {
        if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            logger.trace("Testing handler adapter [" + ha + "]");
        }
        if (ha.supports(handler)) {
            return ha;
        }
    }
    throw new ServletException("No adapter for handler [" + handler +
            "]: The DispatcherServlet configuration needs to include a HandlerAdapter that supports this handler");
}


HandlerAdapter接口中定义了supports方法,用于检测是否支持Handler。生产环境使用的RequestMappingHandlerAdapter在其基类AbstractHandlerMethodAdapter中实现了supports方法。


public final boolean supports(Object handler) {
    return (handler instanceof HandlerMethod && supportsInternal((HandlerMethod) handler));
}


supportsInternal方法在RequestMappingHandlerAdapter的实现里默认返回true。因而RequestMappingHandlerAdapter就是用来支持类型为HandlerMethod的Handler的处理的。

拦截器处理

在SpringMVC中的拦截器接口HandlerInterceptor中定义了三个方法


public interface HandlerInterceptor {

    // 在Handler找到后,执行前拦截
    boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler)
            throws Exception;

    // 在Handler执行后,视图渲染前拦截
    void postHandle(
            HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, ModelAndView modelAndView)
            throws Exception;

    // 请求处理完成,视图渲染后执行资源清理等
    void afterCompletion(
            HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, Exception ex)
            throws Exception;

}


可以很清晰地对应到doDispatcher方法中。需要注意的有几点

  1. 前置处理preHandle,返回值为boolean。如果返回true,则执行下一个,如果返回false,则认为当前拦截器完成了请求,DispatcherServlet会直接返回,在返回前会调用所有拦截器的afterCompletion方法,完成清理工作。
  2. afterCompletion方法在遇到任何情况时都需要被执行,无论是成功返回还是抛出异常。

执行请求

HandlerAdapter的handle方法完成请求的真正执行。在AbstractHandlerMethodAdapter中由handleInternal执行。


protected ModelAndView handleInternal(HttpServletRequest request,
        HttpServletResponse response, HandlerMethod handlerMethod) throws Exception {

    ModelAndView mav;
    checkRequest(request);


    // 执行HandlerMethod
    mav = invokeHandlerMethod(request, response, handlerMethod);

    // 处理缓存
    if (!response.containsHeader(HEADER_CACHE_CONTROL)) {
        if (getSessionAttributesHandler(handlerMethod).hasSessionAttributes()) {
            applyCacheSeconds(response, this.cacheSecondsForSessionAttributeHandlers);
        }
        else {
            prepareResponse(response);
        }
    }

    return mav;
}


在invokeHandlerMethod中,HandlerMethod被封装ServletInvocableHandlerMethod,包裹上方法执行需要的信息。


protected ModelAndView invokeHandlerMethod(HttpServletRequest request,
        HttpServletResponse response, HandlerMethod handlerMethod) throws Exception {

    ServletWebRequest webRequest = new ServletWebRequest(request, response);
    try {
        WebDataBinderFactory binderFactory = getDataBinderFactory(handlerMethod);
        ModelFactory modelFactory = getModelFactory(handlerMethod, binderFactory);

        // 封装HandlerMethod
        ServletInvocableHandlerMethod invocableMethod = createInvocableHandlerMethod(handlerMethod);
        invocableMethod.setHandlerMethodArgumentResolvers(this.argumentResolvers);
        invocableMethod.setHandlerMethodReturnValueHandlers(this.returnValueHandlers);
        invocableMethod.setDataBinderFactory(binderFactory);
        invocableMethod.setParameterNameDiscoverer(this.parameterNameDiscoverer);

        ModelAndViewContainer mavContainer = new ModelAndViewContainer();
        mavContainer.addAllAttributes(RequestContextUtils.getInputFlashMap(request));
        modelFactory.initModel(webRequest, mavContainer, invocableMethod);
        mavContainer.setIgnoreDefaultModelOnRedirect(this.ignoreDefaultModelOnRedirect);

        // 异步请求处理
        AsyncWebRequest asyncWebRequest = WebAsyncUtils.createAsyncWebRequest(request, response);
        asyncWebRequest.setTimeout(this.asyncRequestTimeout);

        WebAsyncManager asyncManager = WebAsyncUtils.getAsyncManager(request);
        asyncManager.setTaskExecutor(this.taskExecutor);
        asyncManager.setAsyncWebRequest(asyncWebRequest);
        asyncManager.registerCallableInterceptors(this.callableInterceptors);
        asyncManager.registerDeferredResultInterceptors(this.deferredResultInterceptors);

        if (asyncManager.hasConcurrentResult()) {
            Object result = asyncManager.getConcurrentResult();
            mavContainer = (ModelAndViewContainer) asyncManager.getConcurrentResultContext()[0];
            asyncManager.clearConcurrentResult();
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Found concurrent result value [" + result + "]");
            }
            invocableMethod = invocableMethod.wrapConcurrentResult(result);
        }

        // 执行处理
        invocableMethod.invokeAndHandle(webRequest, mavContainer);
        if (asyncManager.isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
            return null;
        }

        // 封装数据和视图
        return getModelAndView(mavContainer, modelFactory, webRequest);
    }
    finally {
        webRequest.requestCompleted();
    }
}


再到ServletInvocableHandlerMethod的invokeAndHandle方法


public void invokeAndHandle(ServletWebRequest webRequest, ModelAndViewContainer mavContainer,
        Object... providedArgs) throws Exception {

    // 执行request
    Object returnValue = invokeForRequest(webRequest, mavContainer, providedArgs);
    setResponseStatus(webRequest);

    if (returnValue == null) {
        if (isRequestNotModified(webRequest) || getResponseStatus() != null || mavContainer.isRequestHandled()) {
            mavContainer.setRequestHandled(true);
            return;
        }
    }
    else if (StringUtils.hasText(getResponseStatusReason())) {
        mavContainer.setRequestHandled(true);
        return;
    }

    mavContainer.setRequestHandled(false);
    try {
        // 对返回值进行处理
        this.returnValueHandlers.handleReturnValue(
                returnValue, getReturnValueType(returnValue), mavContainer, webRequest);
    }
    catch (Exception ex) {
        if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            logger.trace(getReturnValueHandlingErrorMessage("Error handling return value", returnValue), ex);
        }
        throw ex;
    }
}

public Object invokeForRequest(NativeWebRequest request, ModelAndViewContainer mavContainer,
        Object... providedArgs) throws Exception {

    // 执行方法参数
    Object[] args = getMethodArgumentValues(request, mavContainer, providedArgs);
    if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
        logger.trace("Invoking '" + ClassUtils.getQualifiedMethodName(getMethod(), getBeanType()) +
                "' with arguments " + Arrays.toString(args));
    }
    
    Object returnValue = doInvoke(args);
    if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
        logger.trace("Method [" + ClassUtils.getQualifiedMethodName(getMethod(), getBeanType()) +
                "] returned [" + returnValue + "]");
    }
    return returnValue;
}

protected Object doInvoke(Object... args) throws Exception {
    ReflectionUtils.makeAccessible(getBridgedMethod());
    return getBridgedMethod().invoke(getBean(), args);
}


需要说明的一点是方法执行完成的返回值通过返回值处理器HandlerMethodReturnValueHandler进行处理。在RequestMappingHandlerAdapter的初始化中,内置了众多的HandlerMethodReturnValueHandler来处理多种类型的返回值。

在完成请求执行后,doDispatcher方法中做了一个默认View的设置。


applyDefaultViewName(processedRequest, mv);

private void applyDefaultViewName(HttpServletRequest request, ModelAndView mv) throws Exception {
    if (mv != null && !mv.hasView()) {
        mv.setViewName(getDefaultViewName(request));
    }
}


而这个getDefaultViewName是通过RequestToViewNameTranslator的实现类来解析的


protected String getDefaultViewName(HttpServletRequest request) throws Exception {
    return this.viewNameTranslator.getViewName(request);
}


默认实现DefaultRequestToViewNameTranslator,根据配置的一些通用url进行匹配


public String getViewName(HttpServletRequest request) {
    String lookupPath = this.urlPathHelper.getLookupPathForRequest(request);
    return (this.prefix + transformPath(lookupPath) + this.suffix);
}


视图渲染

当请求完成后,返回的ModelAndView需要渲染到浏览器进行显示。doDispatcher方法中processDispatchResult用来处理视图。


private void processDispatchResult(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response,
        HandlerExecutionChain mappedHandler, ModelAndView mv, Exception exception) throws Exception {

    boolean errorView = false;

    // 异常处理
    if (exception != null) {
        if (exception instanceof ModelAndViewDefiningException) {
            logger.debug("ModelAndViewDefiningException encountered", exception);
            mv = ((ModelAndViewDefiningException) exception).getModelAndView();
        }
        else {
            Object handler = (mappedHandler != null ? mappedHandler.getHandler() : null);
            mv = processHandlerException(request, response, handler, exception);
            errorView = (mv != null);
        }
    }

    // Did the handler return a view to render?
    if (mv != null && !mv.wasCleared()) {
        // 渲染执行
        render(mv, request, response);
        if (errorView) {
            WebUtils.clearErrorRequestAttributes(request);
        }
    }
    else {
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            logger.debug("Null ModelAndView returned to DispatcherServlet with name '" + getServletName() +
                    "': assuming HandlerAdapter completed request handling");
        }
    }

    if (WebAsyncUtils.getAsyncManager(request).isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
        // Concurrent handling started during a forward
        return;
    }

    // 完成后执行拦截器的afterCompletion
    if (mappedHandler != null) {
        mappedHandler.triggerAfterCompletion(request, response, null);
    }
}


render方法执行渲染,最终由View实现类执行


view.render(mv.getModelInternal(), request, response);


抽象类AbstractView执行对数据进行组装,输出操作交由子类完成


public void render(Map<String, ?> model, HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
    if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
        logger.trace("Rendering view with name '" + this.beanName + "' with model " + model +
            " and static attributes " + this.staticAttributes);
    }

    // 组装数据
    Map<String, Object> mergedModel = createMergedOutputModel(model, request, response);
    prepareResponse(request, response);
    // 渲染输出
    renderMergedOutputModel(mergedModel, getRequestToExpose(request), response);
}


以通用的InternalResourceView举例


protected void renderMergedOutputModel(
        Map<String, Object> model, HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {

    // Expose the model object as request attributes.
    exposeModelAsRequestAttributes(model, request);

    // Expose helpers as request attributes, if any.
    exposeHelpers(request);

    // Determine the path for the request dispatcher.
    String dispatcherPath = prepareForRendering(request, response);

    // Obtain a RequestDispatcher for the target resource (typically a JSP).
    RequestDispatcher rd = getRequestDispatcher(request, dispatcherPath);
    if (rd == null) {
        throw new ServletException("Could not get RequestDispatcher for [" + getUrl() +
                "]: Check that the corresponding file exists within your web application archive!");
    }

    // If already included or response already committed, perform include, else forward.
    if (useInclude(request, response)) {
        response.setContentType(getContentType());
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            logger.debug("Including resource [" + getUrl() + "] in InternalResourceView '" + getBeanName() + "'");
        }
        rd.include(request, response);
    }

    else {
        // Note: The forwarded resource is supposed to determine the content type itself.
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            logger.debug("Forwarding to resource [" + getUrl() + "] in InternalResourceView '" + getBeanName() + "'");
        }
        rd.forward(request, response);
    }
}


最终由java Servlet的RequestDispatcher完成输出。其实就是做了一个跳转

本章中以请求的正向主流程解析了DispatcherServlet及相关类完成此过程的源码,其主要过程则是HandlerExecutionChain,HandlerMapping,HandlerAdapter,View等组件的交互过程,贴两张网上的核心原理图,希望对大家理解SpringMVC的原理有帮助。

 

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