python接口测试

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一、requests库
二、pandas库
三、接口示例

前言
本文档讲述使用python requests库请求接口、以excel表格的方式维护测试用例

一、requests库

1、环境准备

1、在已安装python3条件下,在cmd窗口中,输入以下命令进行安装:

pip install requests


图片.png

出现提示:Successfully installed requests-2.22.0,说明已安装成功。
2、查看安装结果:

pip show requests


图片.png

3、引用方式
在python中,requests库的引用方式很简单,使用import requests
使用requests库请求接口如下:

import requests
r = requests.get('https://api.github.com/events')
print(r)

上述代码中:
(1)import requests表示引用python requests库
(2)get表示接口请求方式
(3)https://api.github.com/events表示接口地址
(4)最后把请求结果赋值给变量r,并打印

2、headers/参数传递
import requests
url = "https://xxx/xxx-api/api/common/login"
payload = '{"username": "13916166492", "password": "111111", "rememberMe": false, "language": "zh_CN", "source": "ts"}'
headers = {'Content-Type': "application/javascript"}
response = requests.post(url, data=payload, headers=headers)
print(response.text)

上述代码中:
(1)payload为请求参数,无则不写
(2)headers为请求头,无则不写

3、接口响应

1、获取响应码

import requests
url = "https://xxx/xxx-api/api/common/login"
payload = '{"username": "13916166492", "password": "111111", "rememberMe": false, "language": "zh_CN", "source": "ts"}'
headers = {'Content-Type': "application/javascript"}
response = requests.post(url, data=payload, headers=headers)
print(response.status_code)

python中使用status_code获取响应状态码

2、获取响应数据
响应数据类型为字符串:

import requests
url = "https://xxx/xxx-api/api/common/login"
payload = '{"username": "13916166492", "password": "111111", "rememberMe": false, "language": "zh_CN", "source": "ts"}'
headers = {'Content-Type': "application/javascript"}
response = requests.post(url, data=payload, headers=headers)
print(response.text)

响应数据类型为字典:

import requests
url = "https://xxx/xxx-api/api/common/login"
payload = '{"username": "13916166492", "password": "111111", "rememberMe": false, "language": "zh_CN", "source": "ts"}'
headers = {'Content-Type': "application/javascript"}
response = requests.post(url, data=payload, headers=headers).json()
print(type(response))

3、获取/引用cookie
(1)获取cookie

import requests
url = "https://xxx/xxx-api/api/common/login"
payload = '{"username": "13916166492", "password": "111111", "rememberMe": false, "language": "zh_CN", "source": "ts"}'
headers = {'Content-Type': "application/javascript"}
response = requests.post(url, data=payload, headers=headers)
get_cookies = requests.utils.dict_from_cookiejar(response.cookies)
print(get_cookies)

python中使用requests.utils.dict_from_cookiejar(response.cookies)获取cookies

(2)使用cookies

import requests
url = "https://xxx/xxx-api/api/common/login"
payload = '{"username": "13916166492", "password": "111111", "rememberMe": false, "language": "zh_CN", "source": "ts"}'
headers = {'Content-Type': "application/javascript"}
res = requests.post(url, data=payload, headers=headers)
get_cookies = requests.utils.dict_from_cookiejar(res.cookies)
# print(get_cookies)
url_ = 'https://xxx/xxx-api/api/news/home?channelId=360&pageSize=20'
r = requests.get(url_, cookies=get_cookies)
print(r)

4、设置请求超时

import requests
url = "https://xxx/xxx-api/api/common/login"
payload = '{"username": "13916166492", "password": "111111", "rememberMe": false, "language": "zh_CN", "source": "ts"}'
headers = {'Content-Type': "application/javascript"}
res = requests.post(url, data=payload, headers=headers, timeout=3)
print(res)

在requests请求中使用timeout设置请求超时时间

官方文档:http://2.python-requests.org/zh_CN/latest/user/quickstart.html#post

二、pandas库

使用python pandas库读、写入表格来读取接口请求信息,通过写入表格来记录请求结果

1、安装

cmd窗口中输入pip install pandas进行安装

2、pandas读取excel表格

表格如下:


图片.png

import pandas as pd
# 读
data = pd.read_excel('1.xlsx')
# 查看所有的值
print(data.values)
# 查看第一行的值
print(data.values[0])
# 查看某一列所有的值
print(data['user'].values)
# 新增列
data['sex'] = None
# 新增行
data.loc[3] = ['name5', 231, '男']
# 删除行:axis=0
data = data.drop([0, 1], axis=0)
# 删除列:axis=1
data.drop('sex', axis=1)

读取excel并以字典的形式展示输出结果:

import pandas as pd
# 读取测试用例Excel文件
def read_csv_file(file_path):
    df = pd.read_excel(file_path)
    df.fillna("", inplace=True)  # 填充表格中失却的值
    test_data = []
    # 获取行号的索引,并对其进行遍历
    for i in df.index.values:
        # 根据i来获取每一行指定的数据 并利用to_dict转成字典
        row_data = df.loc[i, ['user', 'pwd']].to_dict()
        test_data.append(row_data)
    print("最终获取到的数据是:", test_data)
file_path = '1.xlsx'
read_csv_file(file_path)
3、pandas写入excel表格
import pandas as pd
# 生成表格名称
name_xls = 'demo.xlsx'
# 要写入的表格的内容
data = {'usr': ['name01', 'name002', 'name003'], 'age': [15, 16, 17], 'sex': ['boy', 'girl', 'girl']}
# 写入表格
df = pd.DataFrame(data)
df.to_excel(name_xls, sheet_name="表格", index=False, header=True)  # index:索引, header:表头
import pandas as pd
# 写入指定表格
# name_xls = 'demo.xlsx'
writer = pd.ExcelWriter('demo.xlsx')
# 要写入的表格的内容
data = {'usr': ['name04', 'name006', 'name007', 'name009'], 'age': [15, 16, 17, 18], 'sex': ['boy', 'boy', 'girl', 'girl']}
# 写入表格
df = pd.DataFrame(data)
df.to_excel(writer, '表格2')
writer.save()

表格中追加内容:

import pandas as pd
# 写入指定表格
# name_xls = 'demo.xlsx'
writer = pd.ExcelWriter('demo.xlsx')
# 要写入的表格的内容
data = {'usr': ['name04', 'name006', 'name007', 'name009'], 'age': [15, 16, 17, 18], 'sex': ['boy', 'boy', 'girl', 'girl'], 'addre': ['北京', '天津', '上海', '杭州']}
# 写入表格
df = pd.DataFrame(data)
df.to_excel(writer, '表格2')
writer.save()

3、接口测试示例


图片.png

测试用例test.xlsx:


图片.png

执行文件api_test_execl.py:

import sys
import time
from os.path import dirname, abspath
current_path = dirname(dirname(abspath(__file__))).replace("\\", '/')
print(current_path)
sys.path.append(current_path)
import requests
import pandas as pd
# post请求
def request_api_post_form(url, headers, data):
    response = requests.post(url, headers=eval(headers), data=data, timeout=5)
    return response.text
# GET 请求
def request_api_get(url, headers, data):
    response = requests.get(url, headers=eval(headers), params=data, timeout=5)
    return response.text
# 读取测试用例excel文件
def read_csv_file():
    df = pd.read_excel(current_path + '/api_test/test.xlsx')
    df.fillna("", inplace=True)
    test_data = []
    # 获取行号的索引,并对其进行遍历
    for i in df.index.values:
        # 根据i来获取每一行指定的数据 并利用to_dict转成字典
        row_data = df.loc[i, ['interface_name', 'headers', 'domain_name', 'addre', 'data', 'request_type', 'Actual_results']].to_dict()
        test_data.append(row_data)
    # print("最终获取到的数据是:", test_data)
    return test_data
data = {"interface_name": [], "headers": [], "domain_name": [], "addre": [], "data": [], "request_type": [], "Actual_results": [], "response": [], "result": []}
for i in read_csv_file():
    url = str(i['domain_name']) + str(i['addre'])
    try:
        if i['request_type'] == 'get':
            response_result = request_api_get(url, i['headers'], i['data'])
        elif i['request_type'] == 'post':
            response_result = request_api_post_form(url, i['headers'], i['data'])
        else:
            print("请检查接口的请求方式!!")
        # print("response_result:", response_result)
        for j in ("interface_name", "headers", "domain_name", "addre", "data", "request_type", "Actual_results"):
            data[j].append(i[j])
        data["response"].append(response_result)
        if i['Actual_results'] in response_result:
            resul = 'SUCCESS'
        else:
            resul = 'FAIL'
        data["result"].append(resul)
    except Exception as err:
        print("请检查 " + i['interface_name'] + "接口: " + i['addre'])
        raise err
# 生成报告名称
now_time = time.strftime("%Y%m%d%H%M%S", time.localtime(time.time()))
report_name_xls = f'/测试报告-{str(now_time)}.xlsx'  # 生成Execl命名
# 生成报告
report_path = current_path + "/api_test/report" + report_name_xls
df = pd.DataFrame(data)
df.to_excel(report_path, sheet_name="报告", index=False, header=True)

测试报告


测试报告.png
https://www.jianshu.com/p/b871d66e8246

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