HTTP认证之基本认证——Basic(二)

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HTTP认证之基本认证——Basic(一)中介绍了Basic认证的工作原理和流程,接下来就赶紧通过代码来实践一下,以下教程基于ASP.NET Core WebApi框架。如有兴趣,可查看源码

一、准备工作

在开始之前,先把最基本的用户名密码校验逻辑准备好,只有一个认证方法:

public class UserService
{
    public static User Authenticate(string userName, string password)
    {
        //用户名、密码不为空且相等时认证成功
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(userName) 
            && !string.IsNullOrEmpty(password) 
            && userName == password)
        {
            return new User()
            {
                UserName = userName,
                Password = password
            };
        }
        return null;
    }
}
public class User
{
    public string UserName { get; set; }
    public string Password { get; set; }
}

二、编码

1.首先,先确定使用的认证方案为Basic,并提供默认的的Realm

public const string AuthenticationScheme = "Basic";
public const string AuthenticationRealm = "Test Realm";

2.然后,解析HTTP Request获取到Authorization标头

private string GetCredentials(HttpRequest request)
{
    string credentials = null;
    string authorization = request.Headers[HeaderNames.Authorization];
    //请求中存在 Authorization 标头且认证方式为 Basic
    if (authorization?.StartsWith(AuthenticationScheme, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == true)
    {
        credentials = authorization.Substring(AuthenticationScheme.Length).Trim();
    }
   
    return credentials;
}

3.接着通过Base64逆向解码,得到要认证的用户名和密码。如果认证失败,则返回401 Unauthorized(不推荐返回403 Forbidden,因为这会导致用户在不刷新页面的情况下无法重新尝试认证);如果认证成功,继续处理请求。

public class AuthorizationFilterAttribute : Attribute, IAuthorizationFilter
{
    public void OnAuthorization(AuthorizationFilterContext context)
    {
        //请求允许匿名访问
        if (context.Filters.Any(item => item is IAllowAnonymousFilter)) return;
        var credentials = GetCredentials(context.HttpContext.Request);
        //已获取到凭证
        if(credentials != null)
        {
            try
            {
                //Base64逆向解码得到用户名和密码
                credentials = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(Convert.FromBase64String(credentials));
                var data = credentials.Split(':');
                if (data.Length == 2)
                {
                    var userName = data[0];
                    var password = data[1];
                    var user = UserService.Authenticate(userName, password);
                    //认证成功
                    if (user != null) return;
                }
            }
            catch { }
        }
        //认证失败返回401
        context.Result = new UnauthorizedResult();
        //添加质询
        AddChallenge(context.HttpContext.Response); 
    }
    
    private void AddChallenge(HttpResponse response)
        => response.Headers.Append(HeaderNames.WWWAuthenticate, $"{ AuthenticationScheme } Realm={ AuthenticationRealm }");
}

4.最后,在需要认证的Action上加上过滤器[AuthorizationFilter],大功告成!自己测试一下吧

三、封装为中间件

ASP.NET Core相比ASP.NET最大的突破大概就是插件配置化了——通过将各个功能封装成中间件,应用AOP的设计思想配置到应用程序中。以下封装采用Jwt Bearer封装规范。

  1. 首先封装常量
public static class BasicDefaults
{
    public const string AuthenticationScheme = "Basic";
}

2.然后封装Basic认证的Options,包括Realm和事件,继承自Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.AuthenticationSchemeOptions。在事件内部,我们定义了认证行为和质询行为,分别用来校验认证是否通过和在HTTP Response中添加质询信息。我们将认证逻辑封装成一个委托,与认证行为独立开来,方便用户使用委托自定义认证规则。

public class BasicOptions : AuthenticationSchemeOptions
{
    public string Realm { get; set; }
    public new BasicEvents Events
    {
        get => (BasicEvents)base.Events; 
        set => base.Events = value; 
    }
}
public class BasicEvents
{
    public Func<ValidateCredentialsContext, Task> OnValidateCredentials { get; set; } = context => Task.CompletedTask;
    public Func<BasicChallengeContext, Task> OnChallenge { get; set; } = context => Task.CompletedTask;
    public virtual Task ValidateCredentials(ValidateCredentialsContext context) => OnValidateCredentials(context);
    public virtual Task Challenge(BasicChallengeContext context) => OnChallenge(context);
}
/// <summary>
/// 封装认证参数信息上下文
/// </summary>
public class ValidateCredentialsContext : ResultContext<BasicAuthenticationOptions>
{
    public ValidateCredentialsContext(HttpContext context, AuthenticationScheme scheme, BasicAuthenticationOptions options) : base(context, scheme, options)
    {
    }
    
    public string UserName { get; set; }
    public string Password { get; set; }
}
public class BasicChallengeContext : PropertiesContext<BasicOptions>
{
    public BasicChallengeContext(
        HttpContext context,
        AuthenticationScheme scheme,
        BasicOptions options,
        AuthenticationProperties properties)
        : base(context, scheme, options, properties)         
    {
    }
    
    /// <summary>
    /// 在认证期间出现的异常
    /// </summary>
    public Exception AuthenticateFailure { get; set; }
    /// <summary>
    /// 指定是否已被处理,如果已处理,则跳过默认认证逻辑
    /// </summary>
    public bool Handled { get; private set; }
    /// <summary>
    /// 跳过默认认证逻辑
    /// </summary>
    public void HandleResponse() => Handled = true;
}

3.接下来,就是对认证过程处理的封装了,需要继承自Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.AuthenticationHandler

public class BasicHandler : AuthenticationHandler<BasicOptions>
{
    public BasicHandler(IOptionsMonitor<BasicOptions> options, ILoggerFactory logger, UrlEncoder encoder, ISystemClock clock) : base(options, logger, encoder, clock)
    {
    }
    protected new BasicEvents Events
    {
        get => (BasicEvents)base.Events; 
        set => base.Events = value; 
    }
    
    /// <summary>
    /// 确保创建的 Event 类型是 BasicEvents
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns></returns>    
    protected override Task<object> CreateEventsAsync() => Task.FromResult<object>(new BasicEvents());
    protected override async Task<AuthenticateResult> HandleAuthenticateAsync()
    {
        var credentials = GetCredentials(Request);
        if(credentials == null)
        {
            return AuthenticateResult.NoResult();
        }
        try
        {
            credentials = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(Convert.FromBase64String(credentials));
            var data = credentials.Split(':');
            if(data.Length != 2)
            {
                return AuthenticateResult.Fail("Invalid credentials, error format.");
            }
           var validateCredentialsContext = new ValidateCredentialsContext(Context, Scheme, Options)
            {
                UserName = data[0],
                Password = data[1]
            };
            await Events.ValidateCredentials(validateCredentialsContext);
            //认证通过
            if(validateCredentialsContext.Result?.Succeeded == true)
            {
                var ticket = new AuthenticationTicket(validateCredentialsContext.Principal, Scheme.Name);
                return AuthenticateResult.Success(ticket);
            }
            return AuthenticateResult.NoResult();
        }
        catch(FormatException)
        {
            return AuthenticateResult.Fail("Invalid credentials, error format.");
        }
        catch(Exception ex)
        {
            return AuthenticateResult.Fail(ex.Message);
        }
    }
    protected override async Task HandleChallengeAsync(AuthenticationProperties properties)
    {
        var authResult = await HandleAuthenticateOnceSafeAsync();
        var challengeContext = new BasicChallengeContext(Context, Scheme, Options, properties)
        {
            AuthenticateFailure = authResult?.Failure
        };
        await Events.Challenge(challengeContext);
        //质询已处理
        if (challengeContext.Handled) return;
    
        var challengeValue = $"{ BasicDefaults.AuthenticationScheme } realm={ Options.Realm }";
        var error = challengeContext.AuthenticateFailure?.Message;
        if(string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(error))
        {
            //将错误信息封装到内部
            challengeValue += $" error={ error }";
        }
    
        Response.StatusCode = (int)HttpStatusCode.Unauthorized;
        Response.Headers.Append(HeaderNames.WWWAuthenticate, challengeValue);
    }
    private string GetCredentials(HttpRequest request)
    {
        string credentials = null;
        string authorization = request.Headers[HeaderNames.Authorization];
        //存在 Authorization 标头
        if (authorization != null)
        {
            var scheme = BasicDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
            if (authorization.StartsWith(scheme, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
            {
                credentials = authorization.Substring(scheme.Length).Trim();
            }
        }
        return credentials;
    }
}

4.最后,就是要把封装的接口暴露给用户了,这里使用扩展方法的形式,虽然有4个方法,但实际上都是重载,是同一种行为。

public static class BasicExtensions
{
    public static AuthenticationBuilder AddBasic(this AuthenticationBuilder builder)
        => builder.AddBasic(BasicDefaults.AuthenticationScheme, _ => { });
    public static AuthenticationBuilder AddBasic(this AuthenticationBuilder builder, Action<BasicOptions> configureOptions)
        => builder.AddBasic(BasicDefaults.AuthenticationScheme, configureOptions);
    public static AuthenticationBuilder AddBasic(this AuthenticationBuilder builder, string authenticationScheme, Action<BasicOptions> configureOptions)
        => builder.AddBasic(authenticationScheme, displayName: null, configureOptions: configureOptions);
    public static AuthenticationBuilder AddBasic(this AuthenticationBuilder builder, string authenticationScheme, string displayName, Action<BasicOptions> configureOptions)
        => builder.AddScheme<BasicOptions, BasicHandler>(authenticationScheme, displayName, configureOptions);
}

5.Basic认证库已经封装好了,我们创建一个ASP.NET Core WebApi程序来测试一下吧。

//在 ConfigureServices 中配置认证中间件
public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddAuthentication(BasicDefaults.AuthenticationScheme)
        .AddBasic(options =>
        {
            options.Realm = "Test Realm";   
            options.Events = new BasicEvents
            {
                OnValidateCredentials = context =>
                {
                    var user = UserService.Authenticate(context.UserName, context.Password);
                    if (user != null)
                    {
                        //将用户信息封装到HttpContext
                        var claim = new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name, context.UserName);
                        var identity = new ClaimsIdentity(BasicDefaults.AuthenticationScheme);
                        identity.AddClaim(claim);
                        context.Principal = new ClaimsPrincipal(identity);
                        context.Success();
                    }
                    return Task.CompletedTask;
                }
            };
        });
}
//在 Configure 中启用认证中间件
public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)
{
    app.UseAuthentication();
}

对了,一定要记得为需要认证的Action添加[Authorize]特性,否则前面做的一切都是徒劳+_+

查看源码

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